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Stephen Hawking is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Considered a very intelligent man, he has been trying to imagine ways by which an entity (like a universe) can bring about its own existence from non-existence. This is achieved in the world of "theoretical physics" (in contrast to hard empirical physics) where things are proved by mathematical equations. Hawking attempts to get rid of the "anthropic principle" (a universe fine-tuned for life) by proposing the existence of "all possible worlds." In other words, there are trillions of universes out there which appeared spontaneously out of nothing each having their own physical laws and in which all possible histories (of what has ever happened) exist simultaneously. Of course, this is not science, but philosophy and these are "thought experiments" that rely upon very "creative thinking" which is demanded by a prior commitment to materialism.